Leggere file locali con JavaScript

http://www.html5rocks.com/en/tutorials/file/dndfiles/?redirect_from_locale=it

Le specifiche forniscono diverse interfacce per accedere ai file locali:

  • File – an individual file; provides readonly information such as name, file size, mimetype, and a reference to the file handle. Riferimento MDN: File()
  • FileList – an array-like sequence of File objects. (Think or dragging a directory of files from the desktop). Riferimento MDN: FileList()
  • Blob – Allows for slicing a file into byte ranges.

Vedere inoltre i riferimenti MDN di: DataTransfer() e FileReader().
Usare file da web app: Tutorial MDN.

Verifica del supporto da parte del browser:

// Check for the various File API support.
if (window.File && window.FileReader && window.FileList && window.Blob) {
  // Great success! All the File APIs are supported.
} else {
  alert('The File APIs are not fully supported in this browser.');
}

Usare un form per scegliere i file:

<input type="file" id="files" name="files[]" multiple />
<output id="list"></output>

<script>
  function handleFileSelect(evt) {
    var files = evt.target.files; // FileList object

    // files is a FileList of File objects. List some properties.
    var output = [];
    for (var i = 0, f; f = files[i]; i++) {
      output.push('<li><strong>', escape(f.name), '</strong> (',
                   f.type || 'n/a', ') - ', f.size, ' bytes,
                   last modified: ', f.lastModifiedDate ? f.lastModifiedDate.toLocaleDateString() : 'n/a',
                  '</li>');
    }
    document.getElementById('list').innerHTML = '<ul>' + output.join('') + '</ul>';
  }
document.getElementById('files').addEventListener('change', handleFileSelect, false);
</script>

Usare il drag&drop:

<div id="drop_zone">Drop files here</div>
<output id="list"></output>
<script>
  function handleFileSelect(evt) {
    evt.stopPropagation();
    evt.preventDefault();

    var files = evt.dataTransfer.files; // FileList object.

    // files is a FileList of File objects. List some properties.
    var output = [];
    for (var i = 0, f; f = files[i]; i++) {
      output.push('<li><strong>', escape(f.name), '</strong> (', f.type || 'n/a', ') - ',
                  f.size, ' bytes, last modified: ',
                  f.lastModifiedDate ? f.lastModifiedDate.toLocaleDateString() : 'n/a',
                  '</li>');
    }
    document.getElementById('list').innerHTML = '<ul>' + output.join('') + '</ul>';
  }

  function handleDragOver(evt) {
    evt.stopPropagation();
    evt.preventDefault();
    evt.dataTransfer.dropEffect = 'copy'; // Explicitly show this is a copy.
  }

  // Setup the dnd listeners.
  var dropZone = document.getElementById('drop_zone');
  dropZone.addEventListener('dragover', handleDragOver, false);
  dropZone.addEventListener('drop', handleFileSelect, false);
</script>

In entrambi i casi si ottiene una FileList() di oggetti File().
Con FileReader() si può leggere un file:

  • FileReader.readAsBinaryString(Blob|File) – The result property will contain the file/blob’s data as a binary string. Every byte is represented by an integer in the range [0..255].
  • FileReader.readAsText(Blob|File, opt_encoding) – The result property will contain the file/blob’s data as a text string. By default the string is decoded as ‘UTF-8’. Use the optional encoding parameter can specify a different format.
  • FileReader.readAsDataURL(Blob|File) – The result property will contain the file/blob’s data encoded as a data URL.
  • FileReader.readAsArrayBuffer(Blob|File) – The result property will contain the file/blob’s data as an ArrayBuffer object.

Chiamando questi metodi, si ottiene una lettura asincrona, con gli eventi onloadstart, onprogress, onload, onabort, onerror, e onloadend.

Esempio: carichiamo immagini da una selezione utente, chiamiamo reader.readAsDataURL() sulle immagini, disegniamo una thumbnail usando l’ attributo ‘src’ con la URL.

<style>
  .thumb {
    height: 75px;
    border: 1px solid #000;
    margin: 10px 5px 0 0;
  }
</style>

<input type="file" id="files" name="files[]" multiple />
<output id="list"></output>

<script>
  function handleFileSelect(evt) {
    var files = evt.target.files; // FileList object

    // Loop through the FileList and render image files as thumbnails.
    for (var i = 0, f; f = files[i]; i++) {

      // Only process image files.
      if (!f.type.match('image.*')) {
        continue;
      }

      var reader = new FileReader();

      // Closure to capture the file information.
      reader.onload = (function(theFile) {
        return function(e) {
          // Render thumbnail.
          var span = document.createElement('span');
          span.innerHTML = ['<img class="thumb" src="', e.target.result, '" title="', escape(theFile.name), '"/>'].join('');
          document.getElementById('list').insertBefore(span, null);
        };
      })(f);

      // Read in the image file as a data URL.
      reader.readAsDataURL(f);
    }
  }

  document.getElementById('files').addEventListener('change', handleFileSelect, false);
</script>

Slicing a file

File() permette di leggere range di byte:

var blob = file.slice(startingByte, endindByte);
reader.readAsBinaryString(blob);

Esempio: notare che si usa onloadend e si controlla evt.target.readyState

<style>
  #byte_content {
    margin: 5px 0;
    max-height: 100px;
    overflow-y: auto;
    overflow-x: hidden;
  }
  #byte_range { margin-top: 5px; }
</style>

<input type="file" id="files" name="file" /> Read bytes: 
<span class="readBytesButtons">
  <button data-startbyte="0" data-endbyte="4">1-5</button>
  <button data-startbyte="5" data-endbyte="14">6-15</button>
  <button data-startbyte="6" data-endbyte="7">7-8</button>
  <button>entire file</button>
</span>

<div id="byte_range"></div>
<div id="byte_content"></div>

<script>
  function readBlob(opt_startByte, opt_stopByte) {

    var files = document.getElementById('files').files;
    if (!files.length) {
      alert('Please select a file!');
      return;
    }

    var file = files[0];
    var start = parseInt(opt_startByte) || 0;
    var stop = parseInt(opt_stopByte) || file.size - 1;

    var reader = new FileReader();

    // If we use onloadend, we need to check the readyState.
    reader.onloadend = function(evt) {
      if (evt.target.readyState == FileReader.DONE) { // DONE == 2
        document.getElementById('byte_content').textContent = evt.target.result;
        document.getElementById('byte_range').textContent = 
            ['Read bytes: ', start + 1, ' - ', stop + 1,
             ' of ', file.size, ' byte file'].join('');
      }
    };

    var blob = file.slice(start, stop + 1);
    reader.readAsBinaryString(blob);
  }
  
  document.querySelector('.readBytesButtons').addEventListener('click', function(evt) {
    if (evt.target.tagName.toLowerCase() == 'button') {
      var startByte = evt.target.getAttribute('data-startbyte');
      var endByte = evt.target.getAttribute('data-endbyte');
      readBlob(startByte, endByte);
    }
  }, false);
</script>

Monitorare il processo di lettura

Si usano gli eventi onloadstart e onprogress.
Esempio: barra di progressione

<style>
  #progress_bar {
    margin: 10px 0;
    padding: 3px;
    border: 1px solid #000;
    font-size: 14px;
    clear: both;
    opacity: 0;
    -moz-transition: opacity 1s linear;
    -o-transition: opacity 1s linear;
    -webkit-transition: opacity 1s linear;
  }
  #progress_bar.loading {
    opacity: 1.0;
  }
  #progress_bar .percent {
    background-color: #99ccff;
    height: auto;
    width: 0;
  }
</style>

<input type="file" id="files" name="file" />
<button onclick="abortRead();">Cancel read</button>

<div id="progress_bar">
<div class="percent">0%</div>
</div>

<script>
  var reader;
  var progress = document.querySelector('.percent');

  function abortRead() {
    reader.abort();
  }

  function errorHandler(evt) {
    switch(evt.target.error.code) {
      case evt.target.error.NOT_FOUND_ERR:
        alert('File Not Found!');
        break;
      case evt.target.error.NOT_READABLE_ERR:
        alert('File is not readable');
        break;
      case evt.target.error.ABORT_ERR:
        break; // noop
      default:
        alert('An error occurred reading this file.');
    };
  }

  function updateProgress(evt) {
    // evt is an ProgressEvent.
    if (evt.lengthComputable) {
      var percentLoaded = Math.round((evt.loaded / evt.total) * 100);
      // Increase the progress bar length.
      if (percentLoaded < 100) {
        progress.style.width = percentLoaded + '%';
        progress.textContent = percentLoaded + '%';
      }
    }
  }

  function handleFileSelect(evt) {
    // Reset progress indicator on new file selection.
    progress.style.width = '0%';
    progress.textContent = '0%';

    reader = new FileReader();
    reader.onerror = errorHandler;
    reader.onprogress = updateProgress;
    reader.onabort = function(e) {
      alert('File read cancelled');
    };
    reader.onloadstart = function(e) {
      document.getElementById('progress_bar').className = 'loading';
    };
    reader.onload = function(e) {
      // Ensure that the progress bar displays 100% at the end.
      progress.style.width = '100%';
      progress.textContent = '100%';
      setTimeout("document.getElementById('progress_bar').className='';", 2000);
    }

    // Read in the image file as a binary string.
    reader.readAsBinaryString(evt.target.files[0]);
  }

  document.getElementById('files').addEventListener('change', handleFileSelect, false);
</script>

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